The Gregorian, Islamic, Chinese language, and possibly Julian calendars are the preferred calendar programs in use immediately. Nevertheless, different, generally slightly odd and distinctive, calendars have been used all through historical past. Listed here are 10 such examples.

10 The Worldwide Mounted Calendar

Friday the 13th
The Worldwide Mounted Calendar has 13 months; every of which has 28 days. The months are named with the common January–December, with a brand new month known as “Sol” added between June and July. There could be a single, month-less day on the finish of yearly known as “12 months day.” Independence Day would not be July 4, however Sol 16. Easter would at all times be on April 15, and each Christmas could be a Wednesday. Yearly would begin on a Sunday, and for the superstitious, each Friday would at all times be a thirteenth.

The calendar was made by Moses Cotsworth, a railway adviser who didn’t like how the Gregorian calendar was “scattered.” The calendar was fashionable amongst businessmen, significantly these into haulage and transportation. Whereas it was by no means formally adopted by any nation, it was utilized by George Eastman, who used it in his images firm—Kodak, from 1928–89. George Eastman popularized the calendar, hoping different companies would additionally undertake it. He even opened an workplace inside his headquarters for the Worldwide Mounted Calendar League, a corporation which wished their calendar to replace the Gregorian calendar.

9 The Egyptian Calendars

Egypt. Cairo - Giza. General view of pyramids
The primary calendar utilized by early Egyptians was a lunar calendar primarily based on the rising and falling of the River Nile. This calendar ended up inaccurate as a result of it supplied an error of as much as 80 days, prompting the Egyptians to introduce a photo voltaic calendar primarily based on the star Sirius. The 2 calendars have been used concurrently, however they soon drifted apart, forcing the Egyptians so as to add an additional month to the lunar calendar as soon as each three years.

Even with the additional month, the calendars have been nonetheless out of sync, so the Egyptians launched a brand new calendar known as the “civil” or “civic” calendar, which was loosely primarily based on the lunar calendar however was neither a lunar nor photo voltaic calendar. It had 12 months divided into 12 months. Every month had 30 days and an additional 5 days have been added on the finish of the 12 months. Similar to its predecessors, the civil calendar was additionally inaccurate. Whereas the precise months of the lunar calendar fell in the identical season yearly, months within the civil calendar fell on any season. The Egyptians then launched a brand new lunar calendar primarily based on the civil calendar. The brand new lunar calendar was used to find out the day of spiritual celebrations, whereas the older lunar calendar was used for agricultural purposes.

8 The Mayan Calendars

Mayan Calendar
The Mayan calendar was really made up of three different calendars: the Lengthy Depend (astronomical calendar), the Tzolkin (divine calendar), and the Haab (civil calendar). The Haab calendar had 12 months, divided into 19 months—18 20-day months and a five-day month. The Tzolkin, however, had 20 “durations,” with 13 days every. The Tzolkin was utilized in figuring out the times of Mayan ceremonies and non secular actions. The Lengthy Depend was used to find out longer time frequencies often known as the “Common Cycle.” A common cycle has 2.88 million days (about 7,885 years). Historical Maya believed that the universe is destroyed after which rebuilt each 2.88 million days.

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Dates within the Mayan calendar have been calculated with the Tzolkin and Haab calendars. Each calendars have been used to create a brand new calendar known as “calendar spherical.” Curiously, it was the Lengthy Depend calendar that led to the rumor that the Maya had predicted that the world would finish on December 21, 2012, the day the final Nice Cycle ended. The Maya by no means mentioned that Earth would stop to exist on that date. As an alternative, a Nice Cycle would finish, and another would begin.

7 The Positivist Calendar

Auguste Comte

The Positivist calendar was supposed to interchange the Catholic calendar. It was invented in 1849, by August Comte. All its months had precisely 28 days, divided into 4 seven-day weeks. It had a standalone month-less day devoted to all useless individuals on the finish of yearly. Each intercalary year would have an additional month-less day devoted to ladies. Every day was named after an historic individual or group, and all months and years begin on Monday.

The primary month of the 12 months was named after Moses, the third was named after Aristotle, the fourth after Archimedes, the fifth after Caesar, the sixth after St. Paul, and the tenth after Shakespeare. The 14th day of Moses was named after Buddha, the twenty first day of Aristotle after Socrates, and the seventh day of Gutenburg after Columbus. If the calendar had been adopted, the Gregorian calendar’s 1789 could be 12 months 1, and 2000 would have been 212.

6 The Soviet Revolutionary Calendar

Soviet Revolutionary Calendar

The Soviet “Revolutionary” calendar was launched within the Soviet Union in 1929. The calendar didn’t change the 12 months like a number of different calendars. As an alternative, it manipulated the weeks of the 12 months, lowering the number of days in a week from seven to 5. The variety of weeks in a month was additionally elevated from the standard 4 to 6. On the finish of yearly have been 5 or 6 days that didn’t have a month. Whereas the calendar lasted, the Soviet Union skilled February 30. Every day on the calendar was represented with both a shade or Roman numeral. Staff, each authorities and non-government, have been issued a quantity or shade. They have been to look at a time off on the day that fell on their quantity or shade.

The outcomes of the brand new calendar have been disastrous. Whereas it did enhance productiveness as supposed (80 p.c of the nation was working at any given time), it segregated households and pals. A spouse might have her off on a blue day, whereas the husband had his on a crimson and the kids on a inexperienced. Staff have been typically demoralized, and machines couldn’t be routinely maintained since they have been used nearly each day. To counter this new drawback, the Soviets launched a brand new calendar with six-day weeks. Everybody labored for 5 days each week, and there was a basic time off for everybody. The calendar was supposed to extend staff’ productiveness, though it additionally had some roots in exterminating faith. The calendar was lastly abolished on June 26, 1940.

5 The Chinese language Calendar

Chinese Calendar

The Chinese language calendar is a lunisolar calendar, which means that it’s calculated primarily based on the place of the Solar and the Moon. A daily 12 months has 12 months and 353–355 days, whereas a intercalary year has an entire additional month, which brings the 12 months to 383–385 days. The leap month is added as soon as roughly each three years, and it shares the identical identify because the earlier month. Though the calendar remains to be in use in China, it’s principally used to calculate the times of Chinese language ceremonies and weddings, whereas the Gregorian calendar is used for nearly every little thing else.

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Years aren’t counted in numbers like in different calendars. As an alternative, they’re named after one celestial time period and one terrestrial physique over a 60-year cycle. The celestial phrases, 10 in quantity, don’t have any equal phrase in English. The terrestrial our bodies are the 12 animals that comprise the Chinese language zodiac indicators. And similar to nearly each different calendar on the market, the Chinese language calendar has its personal errors. Within the 12 months 2033 (Gregorian calendar), the leap month can be added after the seventh month as a substitute of the eleventh, which is very unusual.

4 The Ethiopian Orthodox Calendar

(*10*)
Ethiopia celebrated the brand new millennium on September 12, 2007, seven and a half years behind the West. It is because they use the Coptic Orthodox calendar, which is utilized by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is much like the Jewish calendar. The calendar has 13 months of 30 days every, and leap years have an additional month of 5 or 6 days. The calendar was used by the West previous to 1582, once they modified to the Gregorian calendar.

Ethiopia didn’t swap to the Gregorian calendar as a result of it was conservative and overprotective of its faith. Apart from, they have been situated removed from different main nations of the world and might need not been knowledgeable when the change of calendar befell. To forestall confusion between the Orthodox and Gregorian calendars, all calendars in Ethiopia checklist the date primarily based on each the Orthodox and Gregorian calendars. The foremost problem Ethiopians face with utilizing two calendars is {that a} intercalary year for one calender is not necessarily a leap year within the different.

3 The French Revolutionary Calendar

French Revolutionary Calendar

The French Revolutionary calendar was additionally known as the French republican calendar. It was utilized in France from October 24, 1793, till January 1, 1806, when it was abolished. It was readopted round 1871, earlier than being abolished but once more. The calendar was a failed try and “de-Christianize” France. It was first launched on October 24, 1793, a bit over a 12 months after the French revolution. Due to this, there was no 12 months 1. As an alternative, the calendar began from year 2 .

It had 12 months, every of which had three many years (slightly than weeks) of 10 days every. 5 month-less days (or six within the case of leap years) have been added on the finish of the 12 months. Every day of the 12 months was named after seeds, bushes, flowers, fruits, instruments, and animals. Of all of the 10 days within the decade, solely the final day was thought to be the day for relaxation. The remaining 9 days have been strictly for work.

Leap years have been usually added to make the New 12 months start on the autumnal equinox, however this merely difficult points, because the autumnal equinox was troublesome to foretell. The calendar quickly acquired out of sync with different calendars, and a number of other changes have been deliberate by 12 months 20 to appropriate the calendar. These changes by no means got here, because the calendar was abolished in 12 months 14.

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2 The Roman Calendar

Pre-Julian Calendar

The Roman calendar is an ideal instance of what a calendar shouldn’t appear like. Additionally known as the “pre-Julian” calendar, it was created by King Romulus when Rome was based. It had 10 months, totaling 304 days, and a further 61 days that weren’t assigned to months or weeks. As a result of the months weren’t in sync with the seasons, King Numa added two additional months, Ianuarius (January) and Februarius (February) to convey the months to 12. An additional month is also added on the behest of the pontifex maximus, a Roman excessive priest.

Most pontifex maximi added the additional month for their own political gains. Some have been even bribed so as to add or scale back the size of the 12 months. Leap years have been additionally intentionally prevented as a result of they have been believed to convey dangerous luck. Julius Ceasar later launched the Julian calendar after he turned the pontifex maximus. Nevertheless, the brand new calendar couldn’t be instantly adopted due to the inaccuracies within the Roman calendar. So, 46 BC ended up with 15 months, totaling 445 days. That 12 months was named “the last year of confusion,” and the Julian calendar lastly began in 45 BC.

1 The Aztec Calendar

Aztec Calendar
The Aztec calendar was made up of two completely different calendars—the Xiuhpohualli and the Tonalpohualli. The Xiuhpohualli had 12 months divided into 18 months of 20 days every. 5 additional days, which have been thought-about unfortunate, have been added on the finish of the 12 months, and 12 days have been added as soon as each 52 years. The Tonalpohualli, however, had 20 months divided into 13 days, bringing its days to 260. Every of the 260 days was related to a quantity or signal and dedicated to a god.

The 2 calendars turned equal as soon as each 52 years, throughout which the Aztecs believed the world could be destroyed. To forestall the approaching destruction, they carried out a 12-day ritual known as the brand new hearth pageant to “bind up” the years. All fires burning within the metropolis could be extinguished on the primary day of the pageant, and they might stay like that until the twelfth day, when a human sacrifice could be supplied and a brand new hearth lit. This sacrifice was to make sure that the Sun would keep rising for the following 52 years.

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